Obtaining professional knowledge and skills, designers face a variety of specific terminology. We have already published the posts with key terms for the topics of usability and web design, business terms and abbreviations, navigation elements and color terms. New article continues the theme of psychology in user experience design and adds a new issue to UX Design Glossary. Today we are talking about affordances, subtle cues that help users to interact with an interface.
What is Affordance?
Affordance is a property or feature of an object which presents a prompt on what can be done with this object. In short, affordances are cues which give a hint how users may interact with something, no matter physical or digital. For example, when you see a door handle, it is a prompt you can use it to open the door. When you see a receiver icon, it gives you a hint you may click it to make a call. Affordances make our life easier as they support our successful interactions with the world of physical things and virtual objects.
Check the screen of Watering Tracker below. In split seconds, you will understand that the needed action is done — the tick shows it. The icons in the tab bar will give you clues what you can do with the app: check your set of plants (this tab is active as it’s colored while the others are not), add a new plant or check your profile. These are affordances in action.
History of the Terminology
The term was first introduced by the psychologist James Gibson who deeply researched visual perception. He first used the term in his book ‘The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems‘ in 1966. In 1979 he clarifies the definition of his terminology in the book ‘The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception’: «The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill. The verb to afford is found in the dictionary, the noun affordance is not. I have made it up. I mean by it something that refers to both the environment and the animal in a way that no existing term does. It implies the complementarity of the animal and the environment.» According to Gibson, humans tend to modify their environment with a wish to make its affordances suit them better and make their life easier. Learning the affordances of the environment becomes an essential part of socialization.
Being applied to design, the term referred to only those physical action possibilities of which the user is aware. In this perspective, the term got its further development in the explorations by Donald Norman in the 1988 book, ‘The Design of Everyday Things‘. According to the expert, «…the term affordance refers to the perceived and actual properties of the thing, primarily those fundamental properties that determine just how the thing could possibly be used. […] Affordances provide strong clues to the operations of things. Plates are for pushing. Knobs are for turning. Slots are for inserting things into. Balls are for throwing or bouncing. When affordances are taken advantage of, the user knows what to do just by looking: no picture, label, or instruction needed.»
With the advent of various user interfaces, affordances got a new vector of development. We did hundreds of operations with diverse actions, tools, and things. Now we also do tons of operations just clicking the mouse or tapping the screen. It makes UX designers work on the new ways of presenting affordances that accumulate patterns and knowledge people have from real life in digital interactions. This experience is dramatically different so the approaches change too.